Mamonia Complex

The Mamonia Complex or Zone mainly appears in the Pafos district at the southwestern part of the island, in which excellent characteristic outcrops are exposed, as the overlying younger sediments have been eroded. Its name was derived from the village of Mamonia in Pafos, where typical outcrops of the Zone occur. Outcrops of this Zone, at a smaller scale, are found at the southern tip of the Akrotiri peninsula and in south-eastern Cyprus.

The Mamonia Complex consists of a series of igneous, sedimentary and in smaller proportion metamorphic rocks ranging in age from Middle Triassic (230 million years) to Upper Cretaceous (75 million years). The Complex, records the opening of an old oceanic basin, its evolution to an ocean and its closure. These rocks, which are regarded as allochthonous in relation to the overlying autochthonous carbonate successions and the Troodos ophiolite rocks, were thrust onto the Troodos ophiolite during the Mid-Maastrichtian. Thus, the Mamonia Complex rocks have been intensely deformed, fragmented and mixed with various size fragments of the Troodos ophiolite rocks, forming extensive zones of mélange, known as the Mamonia Melange which outcrops in western Cyprus. Despite the intense tectonism of its rocks, a stratigraphy can be distinguished separating the complex into two major groups: a) the Agios Photios Group mainly made up of sedimentary rocks and b) the Diarizos Group mainly made up of igneous rocks.

The Agios Photios Group is comprised of a series of sedimentary rocks with a total thickness of about 235 meters, ranging from Upper Triassic to Middle Cretaceous age. The formations of the group occur as disrupted thrust sheets and blocks in the tectonic mélange and onto the rocks of the Diarizos Group. The Agios Photios Group is divided into three formations: a) the Vlampouros Formation, b) the Maronas Formation and c) the Episkopi Formation. The Vlampouros Formation, which is the lowest stratigraphic unit of the Agios Photios Group, consists of thin- to thick-bedded sandstones that pass towards the top, into calcareous sandstone of Upper Triassic age (210 million years old) with a total thickness of more than 50 meters.

Overlying the Vlampouros Formation are the sediments of the Maronas Formation with a thickness of about 20 meters. It consists of a series of grey, fine-grained pelagic limestones, in which a variety of fossils have been identified, including bivalves of the species Halobia that indicate an Upper Triassic age (210 million years) for the Maronas Formation.

At the top of the Agios Photios Group, outcrop the sediments of the Episkopi Formation with a total thickness of about 165 meters and its age ranges from Lower Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous (190 - 100 million years). It consists of siltstones, calcilutites, radiolarian cherts and mudstones and to a lesser extent of sandstones, calcarenites and limestone conglomerates. The sediments of the Episkopi Formation are composed of terrestrial material that has been transported abruptly and deposited in very deep waters, while simultaneously the sedimentation of radiolarian cherts and mudstones was ongoing.

The Diarizos Group consists of a series of mainly igneous rocks of Upper Triassic age (210 million years), which are overlain by deep-sea sediments of Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous age (190 - 100 million years). The total thickness of the group is impossible to determine, due to tectonic dismembering. The Diarizos Group is divided into three formations: a) the Fasoula Formation, b) the Petra tou Romiou Formation and c) the Mavrokolympos formation. The Fasoula Formation mainly consists of pillow lavas of basaltic and andesitic composition, with common inclusions of fine-grained limestones and rare thin interbeds of cherts. These are distinguishable features that separate these pillow lavas from the younger lava flows of the Troodos Ophiolite. The inter lava sediments are of high significance, as they contain microfossil assemblages, which indicate an Upper Triassic age (200 million years) for this formation. The total thickness of the lavas cannot be determined, due to the lack of exposures of the base of the formation. However, it is estimated that their thickness is in the order of a few hundred meters.

The volcanic rocks of the Fasoula Formation are geographically associated with the reefal limestones of the Petra tou Romiou Formation, which in several outcrops contains fragments of the Fasoula lavas. The Mavrokolimpos Formation consists of red mudstones, siltstones, and metalliferous sediments that unconformably overlie the Fasoula Formation. The thickness of these sediments reaches up to 45 meters. At the base of the formation, a 2 - 3 meters thick layer of grey volcanic clay is observed, which contains fragments of lavas. Above this layer, mudstones, radiolarian siltstones, and iron-manganese rich metalliferous sediments are exposed.

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